Tuesday, January 13, 2009

Quran & Hadith: Toxins


وانفقوا في سبيل الله ولاتلقوا بايديكم الى التهلكة واحسنوا ان الله يحب المحسنين

Give generously for the cause of Allah and do not cast yourselves into destruction by your own hands. Be charitable: Allah loves those who are charitable.
— Quran, Surat Al-Baqarah 2:195

Hadith referencing TOXINS, INTOXICANTS

Although not one-and-the-same, many foods identified as TOXINS are also INTOXICANTS, consumed because of the effects they have on a person's state of being. AMNA has differentiates between ALCOHOL products and INTOXICANTS. The reason for this is simply to provide more precision in our judgements.

Much of the hadith prohibiting intoxicants is the same the ahadith prohibiting alcohol. The explanation being that:
  1. First the Prophet (s.a.s.) first prohibited khamr (wine), 
  2. Then he extended the meaning of khamr to include the prohibition of all alcoholic beverages, regardless of what they are made from.
  3. Finally, he further extended the meaning of khamr to include any substance that intoxicates.
Prohibition against drinking / consuming alcohol 
or other intoxicants in any quantity or strength

Narrated by Ahmed bin al-Musnad:
"Whatever intoxicates in large quantities, a small amount of it is haram.”
— al-Musnad, 2/91, 167, 179; 3/343.

Narrated Aisha, Ummul Mu'minin:
"I heard the Prophet of Allah (s.a.s.) say: 'Every intoxicant is forbidden; if a faraq ('fraction') of anything causes intoxication, a handful of it is forbidden.'"
— Abu Dawoud. Book 26, Number 3679

Prohibition against khamr as medicine
and recognition of it as a disease

Narrated Tariq ibn Suwayd:
"Wa'il said: 'Tariq ibn Suwayd asked the Prophet about wine, but he forbade it. He again asked him, but he forbade him. He said to him: "Prophet of Allah, it is a medicine." The Prophet said: "No it is a disease."'"
— Abu Dawoud

Umm Salamah, the wife of the Prophet reports that he once said:
"Allah has not placed a cure for your diseases in things that He has forbidden for you.''
— Bukhari on the authority of Ibn Mas'ud.

Abu ad-Darda reported that the Prophet said:
"Allah has sent down both the malady and its remedy. For every disease He has created a cure. So seek medical treatment, but never with something the use of which Allah has prohibited.''
— Abu Dawoud; Sahih Bukhari

Prohibition against buying, selling, transporting, producing alcohol

Narrated by Abdullah ibn Umar:
"The Prophet (s.a.s.) said: 'Allah has cursed wine, its drinker, its server, its seller, its buyer, its presser, the one for whom it is pressed, the one who conveys it, and the one to whom it is conveyed.'"
— Abu Dawoud. Book 26, Number 3666

Defining word khamr ('wine') to extend to all alcoholic beverages, 
beyond those produced by grapes

Narrated An-Nu'man ibn Bashir:
"The Prophet (s.a.s.) said: 'From grapes wine is made, from dried dates wine is made, from honey wine is made, from wheat wine is made, from barley wine is made.'"
— Abu Dawoud. Book 26, Number 3668

Narrated An-Nu'man ibn Bashir: 
"I heard the Prophet of Allah (s.a.s.) say: 'Wine is made from grape-syrup, raisins, dried dates, wheat, barley, millet, and I forbid you from every intoxicant.'"
— Abu Dawoud. Book 26, Number 3669

Narrated AbdurRahman ibn Ghanam:
"Malik ibn AbuMaryam said: 'AbdurRahman ibn Ghanam entered upon us and we discussed tila' and he said: "AbuMalik al-Ash'ari told me that he heard the Prophet of Allah (s.a.s.) say: 'Some of my people will assuredly drink wine calling it by another name.'"'"
— Abu Dawoud. Book 26, Number 3680

Extending prohibition of khamr (alcoholic beverages) to all intoxicants

Narrated Umm Salamah, Ummul Mu'minin:
"The Prophet of Allah (s.a.s.) forbade every intoxicant and everything which produces languidness."
— Abu Dawoud. Book 26, Number 3672

Islamic Schools of Thought

"It is prohibited to have any kind of food or drink that causes harm to the body, such as poison, intoxicants, hashish or tobacco... [the] Quranic verse [above] indicates the prohibition of eating or drinking anything that may cause harm. In addition, there are many other legal proofs that emphasize the prohibition of any kind of food or drink that may be harmful either to one's mind or body."
— Al Fawzan, Dr. Salih (Professor of Islamic Jurisprudence. Member, The Permanent Committee on Fatwa and Research). "A Summary of Islamic Jurisprudence, Vol. 2," Section XI: Food, Chapter 1, p. 652.

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