Monday, January 12, 2009

Quran & Hadith: Carrion, Dead (الميتة)

CARRION in the Quran
حرمت عليكم الميتة والدم ولحم الخنزير ومااهل لغير الله به والمنخنقة والموقوذة والمتردية والنطيحة ومااكل السبع الا ماذكيتم وماذبح على النصب وان تستقسموا بالازلام ذلك فسق اليوم يئس الذين كفروا من دينكم فلا تخشوهم واخشون اليوم اكملت لكم دينكم واتممت عليكم نعمتي ورضيت لكم الاسلام دينا فمن اضطر في مخمصة غير متجانف لاثم فان الله غفور رحيم

"Forbidden to you (for food) are: carrion, blood, the flesh of swine, and that on which hath been invoked the name of other than Allah; that which hath been killed by strangling, or by a violent blow, or by a headlong fall, or by being gored to death; that which hath been (partly) eaten by a wild animal; unless ye are able to slaughter it (in due form); that which is sacrificed on stone (altars); (forbidden) also is the division (of meat) by raffling with arrows: that is impiety. This day have those who reject faith given up all hope of your religion: yet fear them not but fear Me. This day have I perfected your religion for you, completed My favour upon you, and have chosen for you Islam as your religion. But if any is forced by hunger, with no inclination to transgression, Allah is indeed Oft-forgiving, Most Merciful. "
— Quran, Surat Al-Ma'idah 5:3

Hadith referencing CARRION
Narrated by Muhammad bin Idris Ash-Shafi`i :
Ibn `Umar said that the Messenger of Allah said, “We were allowed two dead animals and two (kinds of) blood. As for the two dead animals, they are fish and locust. As for the two bloods, they are liver and spleen.”
[Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal, Ibn Majah, Ad-Daraqutni and Al-Bayhaqi also recorded this hadith]

Islamic Schools of Thought
In his tafsir Imam Ibn Katheer says:
Allah informs His servants that He forbids consuming the mentioned types of foods, such as maytah (carrion), which is the animal that dies before being properly slaughtered or hunted. Allah forbids this type of food due to the harm it causes, because of the blood that becomes clogged in the veins of the dead animal. Therefore, the maytah is harmful, religiously and physically, and this is why Allah has prohibited it. The only exception to this ruling is fish, for fish is allowed, even when dead, by slaughtering or otherwise.”

Sheikh Ibn Baz said:
“If a person is forced by necessity to (eat dead meat), it is permissible for him to do so." according to the Words of Allah*, Most High."
* [Reference: Surat al-Ma'ida 5:3]

AMNA Note: As agreed upon by all the 4 methahab, "severe hunger" is defined as facing death through starvation. In which case, it is permissible for a person to eat only as much (of the haram substance) as he or she needs to sustain themselves to stay alive. It does not refer to simply feeling hungry.

Animals Which Eat Carrion
"Among [the creatures] it is forbidden to be eaten are those which feed on carrion (dead meat), like vultures and crows, owing to the evil food they feed on [so] it is prohibited to eat insects, as they are injurious."
— Al Fawzan, Dr. Salih (Professor of Islamic Jurisprudence. Member, The Permanent Committee on Fatwa and Research). "A Summary of Islamic Jurisprudence, Vol. 2," Section XI: Food, Chapter 1, p. 654.

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